Sustainable Destination Management
Strategies in the OIC Member Countries
Best Practices in Formulating Enabling Legislation
The legislative frameworks of the member countries of any given MDTC, especially those
relating to entry requirements and currency restrictions, can impact the potential success of
corridors. Currency restrictions, as shown in a study by UNCTAD, have affected the African
economy negatively with their tourism receipts being 10% lower growth in tourism compared
to international receipts over the period 2005–2015.
A study published by the European
Travel Commission in 2015 estimated the loss resulting from the current visa procedures for
the Schengen zone to be around EUR 5.5 billion in direct contribution to GDP per year.
2019, the EU introduced revised Schengen visa regulations facilitating procedures for a short-
stay tourist visa.
Various regional blocs, such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the
European Union (EU), the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), and the South African Development
Community (SADC), have visa-free for citizens of member countries which facilitates intra‐
The following graph shows the level of visa reciprocity among members
and non-members of regional and economic blocs in 2018. As the graph illustrates, both the EU
and the ECOWAS and the ASEAN have the most reciprocal visa apply 100% visa reciprocity for
members of their blocs, closely followed by the ASEAN (96%). The lowest visa reciprocity
among members of same economic blocs is that of APEC and NAFTA. The graph also clearly
shows overall low levels of reciprocity among members and non-members of regional and
Figure 13: Visa Reciprocity in 2018 (%)
Source: UNWTO (2018)
The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries (SESRIC). 2017. International
Tourism in the OIC Countries: Prospects and Challenges.
UNWTO and European Travel Commission. 2017. Handbook on Marketing Transnational Tourism Themes and Routes.
European Commission. 2019. EU visa policy: Commission welcomes final adoption of strengthened visa rules.
Czaika, Mathias et al. 2018. “The Global Evolution of Travel Visa Regimes.” Population and development review vol. 44 (3):
UNWTO. 2018. Visa Openness Report 2018.